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Circling the Square: Cwmbwrla, Coronavirus and Community

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It is the challenge of constructing a square with the area of a given circle by using only a finite number of steps with a compass and straightedge. The expression "squaring the circle" is sometimes used as a metaphor for trying to do the impossible. After the exact problem was proven unsolvable, some mathematicians applied their ingenuity to finding approximations to squaring the circle that are particularly simple among other imaginable constructions that give similar precision.

The solution of the problem of squaring the circle by compass and straightedge requires the construction of the number π {\displaystyle {\sqrt {\pi }}} , the length of the side of a square whose area equals that of a unit circle. In 1882, the task was proven to be impossible, as a consequence of the Lindemann–Weierstrass theorem, which proves that pi ( π {\displaystyle \pi } ) is a transcendental number. As well, several later mathematicians including Srinivasa Ramanujan developed compass and straightedge constructions that approximate the problem accurately in few steps. If π {\displaystyle {\sqrt {\pi }}} were a constructible number, it would follow from standard compass and straightedge constructions that π {\displaystyle \pi } would also be constructible. For example, Dinostratus' theorem uses the quadratrix of Hippias to square the circle, meaning that if this curve is somehow already given, then a square and circle of equal areas can be constructed from it.However, they have a different character than squaring the circle, in that their solution involves the root of a cubic equation, rather than being transcendental. It had been known for decades that the construction would be impossible if π {\displaystyle \pi } were transcendental, but that fact was not proven until 1882. Over 1000 years later, the Old Testament Books of Kings used the simpler approximation π ≈ 3 {\displaystyle \pi \approx 3} . Bending the rules by introducing a supplemental tool, allowing an infinite number of compass-and-straightedge operations or by performing the operations in certain non-Euclidean geometries makes squaring the circle possible in some sense. Greek mathematicians found compass and straightedge constructions to convert any polygon into a square of equivalent area.

displaystyle \left(9If the circle could be squared using only compass and straightedge, then π {\displaystyle \pi } would have to be an algebraic number. Now imagine that instead of the pattern growing, we start with a square and the pattern continues inwards - with the circles and squares becoming smaller and smaller. It takes only elementary geometry to convert any given rational approximation of π {\displaystyle \pi } into a corresponding compass and straightedge construction, but such constructions tend to be very long-winded in comparison to the accuracy they achieve.

Although squaring the circle exactly with compass and straightedge is impossible, approximations to squaring the circle can be given by constructing lengths close to π {\displaystyle \pi } . Therefore, more powerful methods than compass and straightedge constructions, such as neusis construction or mathematical paper folding, can be used to construct solutions to these problems. Antiphon the Sophist believed that inscribing regular polygons within a circle and doubling the number of sides would eventually fill up the area of the circle (this is the method of exhaustion). In 1837, Pierre Wantzel showed that lengths that could be constructed with compass and straightedge had to be solutions of certain polynomial equations with rational coefficients.

Squaring the circle: the areas of this square and this circle are both equal to π {\displaystyle \pi } . In the same work, Kochański also derived a sequence of increasingly accurate rational approximations for π {\displaystyle \pi } .

There exist in the hyperbolic plane ( countably) infinitely many pairs of constructible circles and constructible regular quadrilaterals of equal area, which, however, are constructed simultaneously. After Lindemann's impossibility proof, the problem was considered to be settled by professional mathematicians, and its subsequent mathematical history is dominated by pseudomathematical attempts at circle-squaring constructions, largely by amateurs, and by the debunking of these efforts. Despite the proof that it is impossible, attempts to square the circle have been common in pseudomathematics (i. In Chinese mathematics, in the third century CE, Liu Hui found even more accurate approximations using a method similar to that of Archimedes, and in the fifth century Zu Chongzhi found π ≈ 355 / 113 ≈ 3.The hyperbolic plane does not contain squares (quadrilaterals with four right angles and four equal sides), but instead it contains regular quadrilaterals, shapes with four equal sides and four equal angles sharper than right angles. If the areas of the four blue shapes labelled A, B, C and D are one unit each, what is the combined area of all the blue shapes?

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